How To Draw Isometric View From Orthographic View

To find/generate missing views, one should have thorough understanding of Orthographic and Isometric Views. there is a distinct difference between drawing a view that looks like three-dimensional and creating a true 3D-model. Search for jobs related to Drawing isometric piping or hire on the world's largest freelancing marketplace with 15m+ jobs. Isometric overview From the course that we look at just below the orthographic drawings is our isometric drawings and I'm going to click on here. iti technical support. Isometric View 2-19. 2-dimensional (2D) plan view drawings are the most common type of drawing created to represent design layouts. The Block Definition dialog box is displayed. You can also create section views in models to populate the View Palette. ? More number of drawings needed in orthographic views than ISO to represent the same piping system. Redraw the following multi view drawing as an isometric sketch. Draw the isometric view of the part whose orthographic projects are shown below: Get more help from Chegg Get 1:1 help now from expert Mechanical Engineering tutors. To make the machine block of the above in three dimensions. Also, if you choose perspective, you can place a perspective view on your drawing, versus the more common orthographic view. 3D modelers often use orthographics to accurately create an object in a 3D application. …The simplest of these projection methods…is the orthographic view. The Miter Line and Projection Lines · The use of a 45° miter line and Projection Lines provide a quick, accurate method of drawing the other views once one view is completed. The section view can be a straight cut section or an offset section defined by a stepped section line. Top View 3. The views are two-dimensional, so they show no depth. In CorelDRAW, you can assign keyboard commands or create menu items to your scripts. So, here are some reference items not to do with your generated orthographic views. How to Draw a Train - An easy, step by step drawing lesson for kids. Select Absolute Angle. So, we started by going into depth with nets. Start detailing. 3D Drawing Techniques Isometric Drawing Basic Technical Drawing, 8th by Spencer, p. Count the number of cubes in each structure. How to arrange and paper engineering drawing Isometric Drawing Basic Technical. This Pin was discovered by Kat Pse. The American Standard recommends slope of approximately 68. Creating a 2D isometric drawing from an orthographic plan I have a standard architectural plan of an existing building and I was hoping there might be a way for me to convert it into a base for a 2D isometric drawing. ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS: Draw isometric drawings from given orthographic views (Three problems) (Refer note c for dimensions). Modern Technical Drawing, A Handbook Describing In Detail The Preparation Of Working Drawings, With Special Attention To Oblique And Circle-On-Circle Work, Orthographic, Isometric, And Oblique Projections, Practical Perspective, Freehand Drawing And Sett. Isometric drawing How to draw an ellipse composed of four arcs using a compass 3- Finally, trace the median lines. A regular cone is rested on base on horizontal plane the front view will be _____. 24) shows the orthographic views of bearing top & bottom half respectively. It is represented in two or more views in which the objects are seen perpendicular to the objects' surface. Note that if drawn to BS specifications Orthographic drawings have dimensions written above an unbroken line or turned through 90 degrees and viewable from the right hand side of the drawing. To avoid confusion, the draftsman usually does not provide any redundant dimensions. Isometric Drawing. Look at the below examples, every example has three different orthographic views (Front view, Side view and Top view) and one isometric view of the same object. Difference between Isometric, Oblique and Orthographic Drawing. Two of the objects had to be drawn in an isometric view; two had to be drawn in an oblique view. This method of drawing provides a fast way to create an isometric view of a simple design. Search for other related drawing images from our huge database containing over 1,250,000 drawing pics. Demonstrate how to sketch isometric views of objects given (2) Orthographic views. The views are two-dimensional, so they show no depth. · Choose views to show the most visible lines and avoid excessive use of "hidden" lines. As you improve, try completing the drawing without the use of the starter sheet. It allows our clients, consultants, and even our design team to understand the project in an immersive and highly realistic way. Pump Isometric Example. Answer Isometric view is a drawing where the axis is rotated so that all three are seen at once. Figure 4-6 shows an object with its front, top, and right-side orthographic views projected from the object. ? More number of drawings needed in orthographic views than ISO to represent the same piping system. An isometric view is typically placed in the remaining corner. b) Use an overlay over the isometric drawing drawn in (a) to draw an assembly (exploded) drawing. Isometric Drawing Basic Technical Drawing, by Spencer, p. Isometric dot paper is helpful, but not necessary, to make isometric drawings. Isometric view is used to visualize the 3 different views in a single view and we learn how to create 3D engineering models by using isometric projection in engineering drawing. To draw isometric of cube. As you improve, try completing the drawing without the use of the starter sheet. How can you check an orthographic drawing to be sure there are no missing lines? 3. Front View. They differ only in the position of the plan, front and side views. Difference between them is that in orthographic view you have to show all the views that ia front view,top view,side view so that we can check their varous parameters however, in the isometric view you will be able to see that object in 3d view al. The black dimensions are the true lengths as found in an orthographic projection. Draw a triangular Connect the vertices of Change any hidden base and a point. You should realize that two views must be known in order to construct additional views. Most orthographic drawings occur in multi-drawing sets in order to depict each side, top and bottom view. All measurements drawn backwards are half the original measurement. Orthographic projection (sometimes referred to as orthogonal projection) is a means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions. An orthographic drawing represents a three-dimensional object using several two-dimensional views of the object. Isometric View 2-19. An orthographic projection is a two-dimensional drawing of a side of a three-dimensional object. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION EXERCISE 3 EXERCISES. Orthographic drawings can help to overcome those challenges. Stan Lee's How to Draw Superheroes: From the Legendary Co-creator of the Avengers, Spider-Man, the Incredible Hulk, the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, and Iron Man [Stan Lee, Steve Ditko, Jack Kirby, Alex Ross, John Buscema] on Amazon. Finally, trace any surface features. Flashcards. These slopes can be created accurately by first drawing a cube or a block, and then 'crated' using guide lines to show where the slope should start and end. isometric drawing exercises with answers - Google Search. jpg I'm remaining with the orthographic projects of the object [see image] and the project is due some time next week. Take ellipse command and choose isocircle. A quick way to set a view is to choose one of the predefined 3D views. To unsuppress a drawing view, right-click a drawing view in the Model browser, and unselect the Suppress option. Other Isometric Features. ) of an piping system, and in Piping they are called Piping Arrangements. This would not be visible using a single isometric drawing. In this unit of the course, pupils are taught how to sketch and draw a range of different orthographic views including sections, geometric forms and building drawings. 02: Concept of Isometric views. Solved Problems on Objects with Isometric Lines and Objects with non Isometric Lines: Solved Problem 1: The following figure shows the Orthographic front and top view of an object. To help you visualize the object better you can rotate the object yourself:. Isometric Drawing When we view large objects in a room or outdoors, we generally see a perspective view. Notice how much easier it is to read and understand. Points to note when making a drawing using first angle orthographic projection: 1. Isometric Drawings in AutoCAD - R Greenlee Page | 7 Difficult Curves Sometimes when drawing an isometric view, the curves that you must draw cannot be drawn with an ellipse. All details of a job can be documented and communicated using an Engineering Drawing. The sectional view is applicable to objects like engine blocks, where the interior details are intricate and would be very difficult to understand through the use of “hidden” lines (hidden lines are, by convention, dotted) on an orthographic or isometric drawing. There are various projection principles in Engineering Drawing. How is an orthographic drawing similar to or different from an isometric drawing?. Isometric drawing definition is - the representation of an object on a single plane (as a sheet of paper) with the object placed as in isometric projection but disregarding the foreshortening of the edges parallel to the three prinicpal axes of the typical rectangular solid, lines parallel to these axes appearing in their true lengths and producing an appearance of distortion. Isometric Views Problem 1 - Duration: Orthographic Projection_Problem 1 - Duration: 4. Orthographic drawing the object is presented into two or more views by. Generally speaking, the number of views used in an orthographic drawing or projection depends on the purpose and objective of a drawing. Development of surfaces. …Measurements on the screen are proportional…to measurements in the 3D scene. It normally has three accurate views of a product, a front view, side view and plan view. First and third angle projection. A good method of drawing an ellipse is to use the box method: 1. An isometric drawing looks like an isometric projection but its all lines parallel to the three major axes are. Students will use the Isometric Quarter Grid Paper for the isometric sketches. In this example a front and a right-side view were drawn. Before you begin, you must understand how an isometric view is called out. ) 120 degrees (Separation angle between iso axes. If there is garbage that went into the plan view (most times it is garbage), then the isometric drawings will be worse. IsoMaker Pro contains a powerful set of useful tools which assists in the creation of isometric drawings. Labrincha etc. Symbols like fittings, Valves and flanges are modified to adapt to the isometric grid. Possible Techniques The following examples show possible techniques for creating isometric views from a given multi-view drawing. Draw the six standard views of an object with proper line types. Click the MakeBlock icon on the Draw toolbar. Identify the front view of the below isometric view. Transfer the letters from the isometric drawing onto the same plane surfaces of the orthogonal drawing. Orthographic Projections Orthographic projection is widely used for fabrication and construction type drawings, as shown in Figure 16. The curve where the cylinder meets the curved surface cannot be drawn with a simple ellipse or ellipse. The term Orthographic drawing means the representation of the exact shape of an object. $\begingroup$ Well, I'm a beginner with drawing isometric from two orthographic views. A pencil artists learn to take their drawing skills to a whole new level in 3D drawing. Isometric definition is - of, relating to, or characterized by equality of measure; especially : relating to or being a crystallographic system characterized by three equal axes at right angles. Point the camera along one axis, and lay out your flats on the other two axes. Transferring Depth Dimensions:. Orthographic Projections is a technical drawing in which different views of an object are projected on different reference planes observing perpendicular to respective reference plane. More information Orthographic Projection, Orthographic Drawing, Isometric Drawing Exercises, Designs To Draw, Industrial Design Sketch. As you can see with the image above, there’s quite a difference between an isometric view and an orthographic view, but you can create one from the other!. Axonometric projections show an image of an object as viewed from a skew direction in order to reveal all three directions (axes) of space in one picture. Draw shape inside box Complex, large shapes? Glue together boxes Draw inside box group Objects need many angles Transparency is tricky Standard: 8 compass points Example: LakeHills. A 2D isometric drawing is a flat representation of a 3D isometric projection. Ideal for Level 2 and Level 3 Engineering courses where pupils need to know how to convert between isometric projection and orthographic projection. Two View Drawings - Parts that may need 2 views draw of it maybe rectangular or square in shape with no irregular sur-faces. Standard 3 View. • Isometric Drawing: Isometric Drawings are three-dimensional drawings done on isometric dot paper of three dimensional structures made out of cubes. Recognize the view for the given isometric figure. 7a-Drawing Isometric View of a Cylinder (Radius 25 mm;. Apr 9, 2014- Explore aachmaria's board "Orthographic Drawing 1" on Pinterest. If you truly want an isometric view, the solution is simply to ignore the usual rule about drawing and inserting at full size. For Isometric View select Base View. Drawing is used to record objects and actions of everyday life in an easily recognizable manner. So, it is an isometric view. Switching to orthographic mode is not the same as changing to top side or front view. …The lines of projection from the viewer into the scene…are parallel to one. Im struggling to visualise the object with the orthographic so if anyone can help me out it would be great Picture attached. This course introduces the basic principles of engineering drawings. Below is a simple Isometric drawing of a block of wood. Lightly construct circles and arcs. For people who have no background in engineering or architectural, a multi-view drawing can be difficult to understand. Biology The process by which messenger RNA directs the amino acid sequence of a growing polypeptide during protein synthesis. "Orthographic drawing" refers to a 2-D representation of an object in a view that shows only one side at a time. Sketch isometric view of a simple object from a multiview-drawing. The isometric view has each receding axis inclined equally to the viewing plane. Locate center lines from spacing marks. Types of orthographic drawing. What type of view does the cake represent?. You can also create section views in models to populate the View Palette. A 2D isometric drawing is a flat representation of a 3D isometric projection. Below is a simple Isometric drawing of a block of wood. Most common views are top. An Isometric drawing is a quasi 3d drawing that shows the height width and depth of the object in a single view where the viewpoint is at a 45 degree angle from each of the perpendicular planes of the orthographic view. Secondly, ensure you've configured your camera to use orthographic projection (as opposed to perspective projection - you don't want lines to converge & objects to shrink into the. When you use the MakeBlock command, the symbol is recognized in the current drawing only. Piping,Welding,Non Destructive Examination-NDT\rCommon Piping Angles and their Solutions,Known and Unknown Angles and Angle Chart,Solving Rolling Offsets,mitered Pipe Cuts,Multipiece Mitered turns, Y Layout,90 deg. Square prism 2. Orthographic Drawing What is the orthographic drawing for the isometric drawing at the right? root An isometric. Rotation of the 3-D Model – Rotate View 2-19. Isometric Drawings in AutoCAD – R Greenlee Page | 7 Difficult Curves Sometimes when drawing an isometric view, the curves that you must draw cannot be drawn with an ellipse. Create several drawings with any three views using proper conventions, placement and alignment. ? More number of drawings needed in orthographic views than ISO to represent the same piping system. Isometric projection:The pictorial view drawn with the use of isometricscale is called Isometric projection. An isometric drawing looks like an isometric projection but its all lines parallel to the three major axes are. The pipe line begins and ends with a flange. Question: Draw The Isometric View Of The Object Below, Given The Following Three-view Orthographic Drawing. Physics Motion of a body in which every point of the body moves parallel to and the same distance as every other point of the body. An isometric drawing is a three-dimensional representation of an object on a two-dimensional surface. Name each view. Fundamentals of Drafting - Isometric Projection Objectives: 1. An orthographic drawing shows the top view, front view and right-side view of a three-dimensional figure. - Three orthographic views to be drawn isometrically. Now your model is in orthographic or isometric view so you can export it out to your game. A cube has all right angles, so every line will be parallel. Biology The process by which messenger RNA directs the amino acid sequence of a growing polypeptide during protein synthesis. It addresses line types, orthographic projection, and isometric views that are used in industry standards. All the best Isometric House Drawing 38+ collected on this page. Create an isometric drawing from scratch. Generally, the Following Three views are prepared in the orthographic drawing. We show this in red. Orthographics are also called engineering drawings or plan views. However, there is always a catch. ITI paper,iti drawing, polytechni drawing,e larninig,fitter,electrician,diesel,copa. Select Absolute Angle. Search for other related drawing images from our huge database containing over 1,250,000 drawing pics. Three View Drawings - In orthographic drawing the most commonly used arrangement of views drawn is the three view drawing. I'm thinking that's what your textbook wants you to do. Its popular within the process piping industry because it can be laid out and drawn with ease and portrays the object in a realistic view. View requirements are generally the same regardless of how they are created. Missing Views • To construct a pictorial drawing from orthographic projections it is convenient to use “reverse” edge or point tracking. To show your model’s scale in your document, you need to switch to Parallel Projection view, which displays what’s also called an orthographic projection. with the horizontal and may be established by drawing a “sloped triangle”, and drawing the guidelines at random with T-square and. For Isometric View select Base View. The curve where the cylinder meets the curved surface cannot be drawn with a simple ellipse or ellipse. If you have difficulty placing the views and spacing them neatly, you can use the starter sheet provided to help you. Isometric drawing – step 2 • Step 2 – The angle of the inclined surface cannot be transferred directly. Isometric drawing in AutoCAD can be made by tilting viewing angle to 30 degrees for all of its sides in the 2D plane. The scale is 1:1, which means that each grid line on the isometric view represents a grid line on the orthographic grid. Orthographic Projection #1 - Wisc-Online OER This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Usually a mechanical drawing will show a true view of two axis as seen from the 3rd axis. Im having troublewith some drawings that want 3 views to them. This detail may be of an orthographic view, a non-planar (isometric) view, a section view, a crop view, an exploded assembly view, or another detail view. isometric view definition: In computer graphics, a rendering of a 3D object that eliminates the distortion of shape created by true perspective. It does not require an understanding of its creator, only an understanding of technical drawings. Study the isometric views in the next four pages. Step 5 Line up the bottom edge of the guitar body with the corner of the orthographic side view. Simulate an isometric view of a 3D object by aligning objects along three major axes. planning and designing, engineering design, building design, Cad drafting, plan, elevation, section, axonometric projection, isometric/orthographic projection. Drawing views. left and right isometric. Continuous lines (object line) on a front view of orthographic projection is re-drawn on isometric projection. The meeting point of the medians shows the center of the four arcs of the circle. Mat Plans • Mat Plan: A mat plan is a top (or bottom) view of a multiple cube solid. Allow construction lines to cross at corners. This section will show how to draw a section view of an existing model. isometric view In computer graphics, a rendering of a 3D object that eliminates the distortion of shape created by true perspective. You can also use an isometric grid layer to guide you – here’s a handy grid you can import as a background layer. Isometric Drawings in AutoCAD - R Greenlee Page | 7 Difficult Curves Sometimes when drawing an isometric view, the curves that you must draw cannot be drawn with an ellipse. engineering drawing layout in the United States. The drawing plane is a distance d from the eyepoint E. As you sketch the isometric, you'll start to see the the top view in your head. Orthographic Projection of a cube: The principle involved in drawing an isometric projection can be explained best by drawing the Orthographic Projection of a Cube, resting on HP on one of its corners with a solid diagonal (solid diagonal is an imaginary line joining one of the corners at the top and the diametrically opposite corner at the bottom) perpendicular to HP. The number of individual views that are present in a orthographic drawing or sketch is variable. Orthographic vs. You will apply your sketching skills in later exercises to sketch orthographic views of objects that are not given in isometric orientation and to represent your ideas and designs. 45° An oblique view is a perspective drawing that has one orthographic view drawn normally with a second orthographic view that has its normal horizontal lines angled at. Professions in design and construction use these types of drawings to inform the. Bottom View. Objectives: Given a project drawing the learner will:. The corners of the block are used to position a line DF in space. On the menu select Rotate. To draw isometric of cube 1) Draw two basic 30 degree guidelines, one to the left and one to the right, plus a vertical guideline in the centre of the drawing. In this article. Study the isometric views in the next four pages. View more. In isometric views, all lines on each axis are parallel to each other, and the lines do not converge. Begin with the big pieces – doors and windows. RENDER both the isometric view to show differences in texture and tonal value. Difference between them is that in orthographic view you have to show all the views that ia front view,top view,side view so that we can check their varous parameters however, in the isometric view you will be able to see that object in 3d view al. Create an isometric view from orthographic drawing. You draw what you see from that side. Combined with an isometric drawing, cabinet and furniture makers have complete drawings to build an object. This method helps the viewer imagine the size of the object. engineering drawing layout in the United States. See Figure 4-27. View Types Axonometric projection is a type of orthographic projection used for creating a pictorial drawing of an object, where the lines of sight are perpendicular to the plane of projection, and the object is rotated around one or more of its axes to reveal multiple sides. STEP 3 Draw the "box" or the crate lines. To help you visualize the object better you can rotate the object yourself:. (ii) Incase of Isometric View, Isometric Scale may or may not be drawn. To identify common forms of pictorial projection. The number of cubes required to make the structure are An isometric drawing shows a corner view of a three-dimensional filegype. Look at examples. Orthographic Projection of a cube: The principle involved in drawing an isometric projection can be explained best by drawing the Orthographic Projection of a Cube, resting on HP on one of its corners with a solid diagonal (solid diagonal is an imaginary line joining one of the corners at the top and the diametrically opposite corner at the bottom) perpendicular to HP. This uses Third Angle. Image result for isometric drawing exercises with answers See more. Choose isometric view Step 13 If the column of the mug tree arrives other than vertical then use Rotate. Draw a triangular Connect the vertices of Change any hidden base and a point. I had drawn some other shapes, but I couldn't draw this, so can you help explaining how to draw it ? $\endgroup$ - Youssef13 Dec 30 '17 at 16:51. This has been the usual way of doing things before CAD allowed true 3-D work to be done. A floor plan, by contrast, shows a space from above – as if you are looking down on the room from the ceiling. Be sure that your orthographic drawing is properly oriented. (15pts) (15pts) Redraw the following isometric sketch in multi-view form. STEP 4 Draw the details of the object by analyzing the figure and determining the points in relation to other points representing the corners, surfaces, and edges. • Isometric Drawing: Isometric Drawings are three-dimensional drawings done on isometric dot paper of three dimensional structures made out of cubes. Consider the Origin ‘O’in the Elevation of the Orthographic Views (Lesson 2) to be the Origin in the Isometric View here. Edges parallel to the view axis disappear. 6 Parallel Projection Parallel projection techniques can be used to create multiview. The program creates these views complete with dimensions derived from the models. Describe the concept of sectional views. Isometric drawings- A pictorial representation of an object in which all three dimensions are drawn at full scale rather than foreshortening them to the true projection. Im struggling to visualise the object with the orthographic so if anyone can help me out it would be great Picture attached. Study the isometric views in the next four pages. This a popular task in introductory engineering graphics courses where the students do this manually on paper. Name each view. In an iso view (I usually show an iso or two for reference) I show the tangent lines a dimmed or phantom. Orthographic projection is the core element in technical/engineering graphics. • Complete three orthographic views of the object shown on the next slide. Orthographic Drawing Worksheet Have your students get start drafting engineering drawings by practicing their construction lines. Students are given an isometric view of an object and must draw the 2D view of the top, front, and side of the object and then use those drawings to construct a drawing with construction lines. It is common practice for a tradesperson to examine blueprint drawings (orthographic plan views) and create isometric sketches to clarify areas of uncertainty. Study the two types and complete the table by matching the numbered orthogonal drawings with the same isometric view. Orthographic drawings can help to overcome those challenges. My game tiles are 64 x 32: I'd like to create an object in blender using this same view. Draw hidden lines to represent these relationships. ORTHOGRAPHIC. EXPERIMENT on scrap paper to find the most convincing way of rendering the glass lens, the aluminum top section of the camera body and the black patterned lower section. Image result for isometric drawing exercises with answers See more. Make sure that the number of cubes you use to draw each letter matches the number used in the “Front view” of the letter. You draw what you see from that side. Isometric View 2-19. What is the angle between each pair of axes? Because the angles between the three axes are all the same, each one must be 120 degrees. Isometric Orthographic Drawings Worksheet. Unit 4 Isometric Projections. Drawing views. They can be completed using the 30/60 set square or freehand. So, we started by going into depth with nets. AutoCad :: How To Draw Orthographic Projections Apr 24, 2011. Questions & Answers on Drawing Instruments, Sheet Layout & Free-Hand Sketching. a single drawing, whereas an orthographic may have fittings hidden from view. In Builders Working Drawing you learn how to create orthographic drawing as well as pictorial drawings. The program creates these views complete with dimensions derived from the models. Draw the isometric square. In such views, the portion of the object above the plane is omitted to reveal what lies beyond. Axonometric projections show an image of an object as viewed from a skew direction in order to reveal all three directions (axes) of space in one picture. These days, when true perspective views are easy to create from a model, why would you wish to use an inferior isometric view?. An isometric is a mechanical view at a 45 degree angle. More information Orthographic Projection, Orthographic Drawing, Isometric Drawing Exercises, Designs To Draw, Industrial Design Sketch. INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPES DOE-HDBK-1016/1-93 Introduction To Print Reading OF DRAWINGS, VIEWS, AND PERSPECTIVES Figure 17 shows how each of the three views is obtained. Physics Motion of a body in which every point of the body moves parallel to and the same distance as every other point of the body. A pictorial drawing in which the front view of an object is parallel to the projection plane and shown in its true size and shape. Copy Drawing to Project. This is actually for creating an Axonometric projection (for doing a Make2D or printing), not isometric. Re: Convert isometric to orthographic view it's called 'drafting' but not in the NASCAR sense of the word. Now I feel that I should give more details here. the orthographic projection and the isometric projection. 1 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION SECTION I: INTRODUCTION TO ISOMETRIC PROJECTION Orthographic projection shows drawings of an object in a two-dimensional format, with views given in plan, elevation and end elevation (as explained in Chapter 17 on construc-tions, Section II: geometric planes). Dynamic Viewing – Quick Keys 2-22. A good skill to develop is to be able to draw a simple cube on plain white paper, using only a ruler and a pencil. It is common practice for a tradesperson to examine blueprint drawings (orthographic plan views) and create isometric sketches to clarify areas of uncertainty. Drafting is based on the concept of orthographic projection, which in turn is the principal concern of the branch of mathematics called descriptive geometry. Designer’s Guide to isometric Projection. Its primary function is to convert orthographic views. The black dimensions are the true lengths as found in an orthographic projection. When creating an isometric projection, use this approximate scale factor to produce an isometric view:. it is not drawn in perspective and the distances are not distorted. Recognize the view for the given isometric figure. The red dimensions are used when drawing with the isometric drawing method. The sectional view is applicable to objects like engine blocks, where the interior details are intricate and would be very difficult to understand through the use of "hidden" lines (hidden lines are, by convention, dotted) on an orthographic or isometric drawing. In order to get a more complete view of the object, an orthographic projection may be used. This is useful because it gives someone the exact dimensions of the object on these three views. Create several drawings with any three views using proper conventions, placement and alignment. Start the ViewBase command. Draw the six standard views of an object with proper line types. Identify the front view of the below isometric view. 1 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION SECTION I: INTRODUCTION TO ISOMETRIC PROJECTION Orthographic projection shows drawings of an object in a two-dimensional format, with views given in plan, elevation and end elevation (as explained in Chapter 17 on construc-tions, Section II: geometric planes). In this article, I will show you methods of making an isometric drawing in AutoCAD. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: