How To Remove Stop Words From Csv File In Python

I hope that now you have a basic understanding of how to deal with text data in predictive modeling. 5) and (12, 9) plt. csv h1,h2,h3 data of database,a,v gg,word or words/word,gdg asd,r,rank Python code #!python2 import csv import re # This builds a dictionary of key/value replacements. One option would be to use -ErrorAction Stop on the Export-CSV cmdlet and put it in a Try/Catch block. If you see the confirmation dialog, click Yes or OK button to begin deleting files. Now add the following lines to the beginning of the spec file : import sys. py Heads: 4984 Tails: 5016 More information. Line 17 - 22 This opens a file and creates a new file object. txt for reading in text mode, reads the contents into a string variable named contents , closes the file, and then prints the data. log:15" also from all the lines in text file. Update: Elastic Search has an analyzer that allows you to remove stop words with ease: See Using Elastic Search Analyzer to remove Stop Words from a text for some example. Follow the commented code. I am studying the techniques of data mining and data processing. Ahh make sense, I did try it but all I get is the python program stops and displays that a keyboard Interrupt was received. In this tutorial, you’ll learn: What makes up a file and why that’s important in Python. Python has (at least) two ways to read a text file line by line easily. To create and write to a new file, use open with "w" option. Need help using Atlassian products? Find out how to get started with Confluence, Jira, and more. corpus import. This is similar to auto-closing files: while a reference-counting implementation like CPython deallocates an object as soon as the last reference to it goes away, implementations that use other GC algorithms do not make the same guarantee. 4 Distribution. For example ‘eat’, ‘ate’ and ‘tea’ are anagrams. You may want to consider using HTML tables in your website. How to read all content of a file in python, while that file is open ? If a file was open for reading, how would you print the files' contents ? Note: I have already used f. In my case, I stored the CSV file under the path below. In this chapter you will learn how to write and read data to and from CSV files using Python. You may not care about such slight errors, but you will be able to check in Chapter 3 that if Python tests the expressions. Change text to avoid guestNumber - Having the guestNumber seems unneccessary. Stop words can be filtered from the text to be processed. This can be seen when you open the CSV file in a text editor – There are however other formats for delimited data – for example, some systems may use a pipe character |. How to convert Excel document into text (. How to Extract Words from PDFs with Python. In general, you can use Python string manipulation tools to cut out particular characters anywhere in the string or cut out characters in particular places. Subscribe. Use Fixed Width Instead of Delimited. To make this batch file, you could put the text below inside an empty Notepad file and save it with a. To verify the authenticity of the download, grab both files and then run this command: gpg --verify Python-3. Styling a WPF TreeView Items A TreeView control is placed inside a StackPanel that contains a ScrollVewer control so when the width of height of the panel is more than the visible area, the scroll viewer gets active and. Import text and csv files with the “Get & Transform” tools. Excel does interpret that form as intended when we open the CSV file directly using Excel. Find file. Select the location for the exported data and name your file (be sure to set the file extension as. There are multiple ways to create word cloud in Python. write('Delete this!');. csv file? I have a. csv) are much easier to work with. The good news, though, is that there are several tools available online to make this task easier. Writing on Existing File. Csv column deleter tool What is a csv column deleter? This tool deletes one or more columns from Comma Separated text. We can read the csv file and remove whitespaces, by registering new dialects using csv. To prevent duplicate work, here's the topic that this question was re-posted in:. spec as extension should be generated. I authored an open-source CSV to TSV converter that handles the transformations described. by Scott Davidson (Last modified: 05 Dec 2018) Use Python to read and write files. csv file in Notepad or another text editor. The steps below will show how to make it so Excel will use the pipe character as the delimiter – unfortunately it cannot be configured from Excel and needs to be done. You may not care about such slight errors, but you will be able to check in Chapter 3 that if Python tests the expressions. For more details on the Jupyter Notebook, please see the Jupyter website. Python Programming Code to Count Word in Sentence. For example, a customer name of "John Smith" in the csv file is written to my SQL table as "John?Smith" So it's not actually a ? in the csv file. $ python random_choice. If your HTML contains more than one TABLE tag, you can choose which table to convert by changing the "Which Table" selection. py extension is typical of Python program files. One of the differences we noted is that the elements of a list can be modified, but the characters in a string cannot. spec as extension should be generated. txt file stores student grades as comma separated values (CSV format). Google Spreadsheets and Microsoft Excel make it easy to edit those generated CSV files. Windows Server > "PowerShell maps this whole text to the description column. We saw an example of this in the last blog post. The problem is that this filed was very large, to the point of. Get list of common stop words in various languages in Python - Alir3z4/python-stop-words. Reading the file using OS will see a row like this and stop reading at the crlf. Background: I'm extracting values from a file which is sometimes an xls and sometimes an xlsx file. A Python program can read a text file using the built-in open() function. The key used in UPDATE, DELETE, and MERGE is specified by setting the key column. If you need to read in a csv with R the best way to do it is with the command read. In general, you can use Python string manipulation tools to cut out particular characters anywhere in the string or cut out characters in particular places. Now add the following lines to the beginning of the spec file : import sys. This is the case of articles, conjunctions, some adverbs, etc. It can handle massive files, rapidly splitting them into chunks of your choosing. The tidyverse is an opinionated collection of R packages designed for data science. The Windows command line is very stable – no worrying about the PowerShell interpreter path, which version of PowerShell the server is running, etc. You cannot reassign an IPv6 address while it's assigned to another network interface—you must first unassign it. Let’s take a sample CSV file and walk through the steps to convert delimited text files to spreadsheets. Loading data in python environment is the most initial step of analyzing data. Next, we use the csv module to read in the data. You may want to consider using HTML tables in your website. It is important to note that always make sure you explicitly close each open file, once its job is done and you have no reason to keep it open. What Is a CSV File? A CSV (comma separated values) file allows data to be saved in a tabular structure with a. csv file to open. Try this! [code]from many_stop_words import get_stop_words from nltk. corpus import. For instance, datayear1980. There’s an awesome Python package called Scrubadub that can can help you remove personally identifiable information from text data. Find file. Stop words are words which should be excluded from the input, typically because the words appear frequently and don’t carry as much meaning. Let’s get started Step-1. csv(MyData, file = “examplefile. There are actually a number of ways to read a text file in Python, not just one. readlines(). # Common sizes: (10, 7. csv' with whatever you would like to name your new file. In this case, it is a file, but any iterable is accepted (StringIO instances, lists, etc. Like you need to export or import spreadsheets. Normalizing text can mean performing a number of tasks, but for our framework we will approach normalization in 3 distinct steps: (1) stemming, (2) lemmatization, and (3) everything else. csv, datayear1982. csv extension. 3 Ways to Read a File and Skip Initial Comments in Python January 31, 2018 by cmdline Reading a text file line by line is one of the common activities you do while dealing with a big text file. Python’s sort is stable; the order of items that compare equal will be preserved. This has some trickery so you don't get data analysis of data analysisbase when replacing data: input. As information about new vulnerabilities is discovered and released into the general public domain, Tenable Research designs programs to detect them. They are stored in the activities folder on the device. We will first review basic file output, and then move on to writing data in a CSV format that can be used by many other programs. The options discussed below specify the amount of information included in the display. Tutorial Start here for a quick overview. Today ,just got the the task to sort a CSV file. Here is the import-points. (I haven't looked at memory usage). Stop Words: A stop word is a commonly used word (such as “the”, “a”, “an”, “in”) that a search engine has been programmed to ignore, both when indexing entries for searching and when retrieving them as the result of a search query. Even though JSON starts with the word Javascript, it’s actually just a format, and can be read by any language. This website highlights them in green. readline() version is if you expect to read very large files that might exceed available memory. csv, file_b. P: 3 olivercfc. This TXT file, named abc. Mac (Old versions of Excel) Go to the Data tab and click on From Text and find the. Remove any garbage values that have made their way into the data. Still though, tweeting isn’t quite as intimate as trading text messages. You can now close Windows Explorer. Here is three ways to write text to a output file in Python. csv, datayear1982. The lack of a standard means that subtle differences often exist in the data produced and consumed by different applications. 9 ENSG00000072121. Even in the latest version of Windows operating system - Windows 10, the file extensions of known file types that are associated with some software installed in your computer, are still hidden by default. This applies to Jython, IronPython, and probably to Python running on Parrot. json, VS Code provides features to make it simpler to write or modify the file's content. Python has a built in dictionary type called dict which you can use to create dictionaries with arbitrary definitions for character strings. Pandas provides a simple way to remove these: the dropna() function. If you want to remove specific characters from the beginning or end of a string, use the Python string strip family of functions. The delimiter character and the quote character, as well as how/when to quote, are specified when the writer is created. You can verify this by opening the. Or you might want to rename a bunch of files to have consistent extensions (jpeg → jpg). This module is similar to the csv. Sample data like this:. custom_stopwords <- read. csv extension. Here is an example of such CSV files. Type "Ctrl-C" to copy the contents. Like spreadsheet data, each line in a CSV file separates into individual values that correspond with the cells. I'm doing this through data I've collected and stored in a csv file. Only the idea wasn't brilliant so now I just have a list of common english words. In the previous article, we learned how to read csv files in Python. You cannot reassign an IPv6 address while it's assigned to another network interface—you must first unassign it. The readmatrix function has these advantages over the csvread function:. If you want to Read, Write and Manipulate(Copy, cut, paste, delete or search for an item etc) Excel files in Python with simple and practical examples I will suggest you to see this simple and to the point Python Excel Openpyxl Course with examples about how to deal with MS Excel files in Python. When you read your text file, also read the property file, take all the entries from the property file and form a list. You can also use other formats, like JSON Lines:. He creates CSV files destined for import into an accounting program, but has problems with the CSV files if he needs to first reload the CSV into Excel to correct any mistakes in the file. by Justin Yek How to scrape websites with Python and BeautifulSoup There is more information on the Internet than any human can absorb in a lifetime. Test various ways of removing stop words in python. Hello All, I have a text file in the following format. The ability to read, manipulate, and write data to and from CSV files using Python is a key skill to master for any data scientist or business analysis. Pandas provides a simple way to remove these: the dropna() function. 5 Methods to Convert xlsx Format Files to CSV on Linux CLI October 18, 2017 Updated October 18, 2017 LINUX HOWTO XLSX is a file extension for an open XML spreadsheet file format used by MicrosoftExcel. Here is the way to read text file one line at a time using "While" statement and python's readline function. Sanitize the refreshed database and run a script and upload results as a csv file to sftp site. Note that my screen shots are from Excel 2010, but this will work in exactly the same manner in Excel 2003. Some other well-known data exchange formats are XML, HTML, JSON etc. config file's Extension's trying setting the DeviceInfo's NoHeader to true , but still it is not working. In similar way, we can also write a new or edit existing csv files in Python. I am trying to delete all the content of my csv file except its header. A CSV file may look a little messier when you open it in a text editor, but it can be helpful to always continue thinking of it as a grid structure. argv can be looped for all remaining arguments. stop words will be dealt with. Scripting > or fix the CSV file so it doesn't contain duplicate column names. I'm partly responsible with my Csv/FixedWidth parser (Generic Parser). Hence knowing how to convert CSV to Excel is a useful skill. Text Patterns and Matches. You want to process the lines in a CSV file in Scala, either handling one line at a time or storing them in a two-dimensional array. For error-free viewing and saving of CSV files, we recommend using an application built for CSV compatibility, such as CSVEdit, Sublime Text, Apache OpenOffice, TextEdit, or Notepad. modifiedFlights. 8, DONT export or import into sqlite or spatialite directly from under LAYERS, via right-clicking. learnpython) submitted 3 months ago * by plshelpme_ Trying to remove stopwords from csv file that has 3 columns and creates a new csv file with the removed stopwords. 07/20/2015; 2 minutes to read +5; In this article. Hello Experts, i have hundreds of txt files that i need to work with for a specific project. Functions that return values can be used in expressions, just like in math class. The so-called CSV (Comma Separated Values) format is the most common import and export format for spreadsheets and databases. Csv-files are just text files, where the values are separated with a comma, semicolon, tab or space. It's quite fast, may be worth a look if there's an on-going need to convert large CSV files. It loops and displays the original data and the extracted values. The text import wizard has 3 steps. View in original topic · Expand entire reply. You see an editor in which you can type the example code. Thanks! Ken · You could use code like this. feature_extraction import text stop = text. csv 2 2_feb_2018. We have a people. Import csv into a Pandas DataFrame object flights = pd. I want to remove any lines that have the phrase "disabled" in them. CSV (Comma Separated Values) is a most common file format that is widely supported by many platforms and applications. The simplest way to export data to a text file is probably use Results-to-Text mode in management studio. Text file processing :- How to delete a line in text file using Python Let us start by creating a simple text file ' myfile ', Content of the file is as follows. csv file has been created to store the student's roll number, name and marks in math, physics, chemistry and biology. In the Search or Run line, type cmd (short for command), and press Enter. 11 I want to get rid of point and any number after that. Clone or download Alir3z4 Remove extra badges and update. 3) Removal of stop words: removal of commonly used words unlikely to be useful for learning. Is there a way to count the number of lines of text in a file including non. If you do not have a CSV file handy, you can use the iris flowers dataset. CSV to JSON - array of JSON structures matching your CSV plus JSONLines (MongoDB) mode; CSV to Keyed JSON - Generate JSON with the specified key field as the key value to a structure of the remaining fields, also known as an hash table or associative array. The following steps describe how to delete files that you no longer need. While a CSV file is still essentially a plaintext file, it is distinguished from standard text files by the structured use of the comma. Printing Lists # By default, the list type does a repr on all items, and adds brackets and commas as necessary. It utilises a flexible Regular Expression engine to enable you to create sophisticated searches, preview replace, perform batch operations, extract text from. Stop words can be filtered from the text to be processed. Your HTML input should contain at least one TABLE tag. Reading Excel Spreadsheets with Python and xlrd - DZone Big Data / Big Data Zone. txt as our test file. Removing stop words with NLTK in Python Python Programming Server Side Programming When computers process natural language, some extremely common words which would appear to be of little value in helping select documents matching a user need are excluded from the vocabulary entirely. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Refer Us to your Friends Please spread a word about this free File Converter tool to your friends and relatives so that they can also enjoy the benefits of this File Conversion tool as you did. The text inside this test file is from one of my tutorials at Envato Tuts+. Also be aware that you don't need to compile a. If this is not specified the program will compute frequencies for the most common words used in all the TEXT_COLUMN fields across the entire CSV. They are extracted from open source Python projects. The worksheet file is a. Then open this file in Excel and then you will see columns are no longer changed into scientific format or whatever. CSV files are very easy to work with programmatically. We also use it extensively in Visual Studio Code for our configuration files. We specify an optional first index, an optional last index, and an optional step. Python Forums on Bytes. Hello Experts, i have hundreds of txt files that i need to work with for a specific project. For example, comma-separated values (CSV) file format stores tabular data in plain text. Not every document you need to open is in XLSX format. corpus import. By using a CSV files, users can easily exchange data between different applications. A tab-delimited text file is a text file whose units of text are separated by a tab character. If you want to read a zipped or a tar. I need to remove " output\ttlog\203. 8, DONT export or import into sqlite or spatialite directly from under LAYERS, via right-clicking. In python, we use csv. These methods will help in extracting more information which in return will help you in building better models. Summary: Learn how to remove unwanted quotation marks from a CSV file by using Windows PowerShell. Summary: Learn how to search for and replace words in a CSV file by using Windows PowerShell. The text will contain "words" beginning or ending with non-alphabetic characters. Please help. The use of the comma as a field separator is the source of the name for this file format. The Delphi programming language provides a quick way to write, compile, package, and deploy applications cross-platform. convert a text file to csv. shape & numpy. I authored an open-source CSV to TSV converter that handles the transformations described. Like you need to export or import spreadsheets. The delimiter character and the quote character, as well as how/when to quote, are specified when the writer is created. When called, rl. Please like and share share this video with your. They are extracted from open source Python projects. In the Search or Run line, type cmd (short for command), and press Enter. How to save worksheet data as csv file with / without double quotes? When you export or save a range of data from Excel to csv file, normally, the csv data is not around with double quotes, but, if your cell values are separated by comma or line break, the exported csv data will be around with double quotes. The tidyverse is an opinionated collection of R packages designed for data science. How can I delete such. CSV to JSON - array of JSON structures matching your CSV plus JSONLines (MongoDB) mode; CSV to Keyed JSON - Generate JSON with the specified key field as the key value to a structure of the remaining fields, also known as an hash table or associative array. This can be seen when you open the CSV file in a text editor – There are however other formats for delimited data – for example, some systems may use a pipe character |. This powerful program enables you to instantly find and replace words and phrases across multiple files and folders. Python official documentation for the sqlite3 library; Zetcode’s SQLite tutorial. Removing stop words with NLTK in Python Python Programming Server Side Programming When computers process natural language, some extremely common words which would appear to be of little value in helping select documents matching a user need are excluded from the vocabulary entirely. csv file as output. Writing a CSV file is just like writing a normal text file, just beware of the “double-quotes” issue that mentions in my previous CSV parsing example. We will learn how to import csv data from an external source (a url), and plot it using Plotly and pandas. Python has (at least) two ways to read a text file line by line easily. How to save worksheet data as csv file with / without double quotes? When you export or save a range of data from Excel to csv file, normally, the csv data is not around with double quotes, but, if your cell values are separated by comma or line break, the exported csv data will be around with double quotes. Sometimes you get comma-separated value (CSV) files, other tabular data, or even plain-text files. #TYPE System. Re: remove carriage return before opening csv by acknak » Tue Apr 14, 2015 12:41 am If the import settings are correct, and the fields are surrounded by quotes of some kind, then embedded newlines or carriage returns are handled like any other character. txt" in the same folder as your Python program. How to open a CSV file in Excel to fix date and other formatting issues Tony Roma Exporting CSV files from Insightly produces a file with standard U. There are actually a number of ways to read a text file in Python, not just one. I authored an open-source CSV to TSV converter that handles the transformations described. The data frame contains just single column of file names. Let’s create a set with this list. The key argument is supported only if output is a TTY text terminal. In this article you will learn how to remove stop words with the nltk module. For now, we'll be considering stop words as words that just contain no meaning, and we want to remove them. It's quite fast, may be worth a look if there's an on-going need to convert large CSV files. In every language, some words are particularly common. When prompted, choose to Save the file to your computer as a CSV file. To be safe right-click the column and explicitly set the format as Text, then save as Excel file format. Remove stopwords from CSV file using NLTK (self. KiwiCo's DIY Halloween Science Projects Are Fun Ways to Kick Off Spooky Season. There is no “CSV standard”, so the format is operationally defined by the many applications which read and write it. fillna(" ") Solution 2: Remove rows with empty values. Need some help from this great Powershell community. Output a DataFrame to CSV. csv file, ready to be used as a Thunderbird address book, I have to manually go into the file and delete all the commas at the bottom. Force double quotes or never use double quotes. Running the batch file runs all the commands in it. Find file. While Calc saves spreadsheets in its native Open Document Format (. Python produces. The Automate the Boring Stuff with Python Programming online course on Udemy. The ability to write short programs that are just as powerful as a program written in another language designed to do the same thing. Each record consists of one or more fields, separated by commas. One of the easiest ways to import data, is “From Text. We must use a FILE * because certain functions will need to change that information, i. But if you open the. csv) Change the Save as type: to “Text Files” Click “Export” Follow the steps 6-14 under the Access 2007 instructions above as they are the same from this point on. Importing text files in Excel with the “Get & Transform” tools requires many steps. reader module to read a CSV file. You can create dataframes out of various input data formats such as CSV, JSON, Python dictionaries, etc. Shell Script - How to dump a Oracle table into a CSV file? H ow to dump /export the contents of an Oracle table into a CSV file? Let us write a shell script to dump the content of EMP table into a CSV file. The text import wizard has 3 steps. Now send the string needs to delete from csv as parameter to this method "UpdateCSV(string Pstring)". CSV file format. How to open a CSV file Updated: 04/01/2018 by Computer Hope A CSV (comma-separated values) file is any file containing text that is separated with a comma , but can also be a file separated with any other character. This script takes the selected file name and populates the text entry box for the CSV file with the full path to the selected file. Removing stop words with NLTK in Python Python Programming Server Side Programming When computers process natural language, some extremely common words which would appear to be of little value in helping select documents matching a user need are excluded from the vocabulary entirely. Hello, I have got a. I have also created another article where you can download stop words in csv, txt or as a php file. We'll use a couple of simple scripts from the Python Samples folder as examples - we'll dissect these to see how they work. skipinitialspace, but it I think it only applies to leading whitespace. The browser can also be used as a proxy server for reading web content. ChromePass is a small password recovery tool for Windows that allows you to view the user names and passwords stored by Google Chrome Web browser. Shell invoked from VBA (ShellExecuteA), Ivan Moala, explains the ShellExecuteA API function but use of constants may make it more complicated for some people, and easier for others. - remove_stop_words. Briefly, we segment each text file into words (for English splitting by space), and count # of times each word occurs in each. This is an excerpt from the Scala Cookbook. Let's see how we can list the different unique words in a text file and check the frequency of each word using Python. When you open the csv, you'll have the option to specify the delimiter and data type for each column. CSV files can be converted into QIF in a number of ways. ) But the implementation would need to be specific to the form and/or content of the example CSV file. csv file (Comma Separated Values). We'll be using the following example CSV data files (all attendee names and emails were randomly generated): attendees1. On this page you'll find a downloadable list of common english words that I created that are free for you to use. 5’s new with statement (dead link) seems to be a bit confusing even for experienced Python programmers. Python Forums on Bytes. Python is simple enough for beginners, powerful enough for the pros. Python has the os module, which provides us with many useful methods to work with directories (and files as well). We're connecting the world to the future of finance through our suite of products including the leading crypto wallet, bitcoin explorer, and market information. If you want to read a zipped or a tar. So, here is Python CSV Reader Tutorial. asc Note that you must use the name of the signature file, and you should use the one that's appropriate to the download you're verifying. Some time back I’ve written an article on How to Read a File Line by Line in Reverse Order which doesn’t print above requested metrics. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: