# Matlab Unique Two Columns

Error: The environment variable MATLAB must be set to the MATLAB root directory. I need a formula to compare multiple columns for any two or more cells within the same row having the same content. Finding Unique Files between two folders. Today’s class • Introduction to MATLAB • Linear algebra refresher • Writing fast MATLAB code 3. Q&A for Work. In the text that follows, any line that starts with two greater than signs (>>) is used to denote the matlab command line. MAT) ASCII COMTRADE format (. I want to create a cell array based on the content in the two first columns, more precise i want each cell to contain all values in column 3 that has the same values in column 1 and 2. There are three optional outputs in addition to the unique elements: the indices of the input array that give the unique values. When you specify matrix coordinate data using the informal syntax (i. Count number of rows with conditions met in two columns counts up the number of times data in two or more. This is what I have written to solve this: img = imread('a03-017-05. columns one and two have pivots. ] Any hint is greatly appreciated. Basic properties. of a certain value in a vector. Object identifier, specified as a character vector or string scalar. Unique Values based on 2 Variables. It consists of the basic ideas that are needed to start MatLaB this is extremely simple and covers a huge range of applications in which can be applied in this software. I have two tables Ta and Tb that have different number of rows and different number of columns. A Matrix (This one has 2 Rows and 2 Columns). sum(axis=1) Sum of each row: sum(sum(a)) a. columns one and two have pivots. Filtering rows of a matrix based on some columns. Structures are created and accessed in a manner familiar for those accustomed to programming in C. MATLAB/Octave Python Description; sum(a) a. Matlab and RREF title page contents previous page next page back print doc close exit. Toggle Main Navigation. How to combine multiple columns into a single Learn more about convert multiple columns into a single column. Based on your location, we recommend that you select:. A_sorted2 = 1 4 5 2 8 5 3 2 7 3 4 6 sorted_index2 = 1 4 3 2. You can determine the common values between the two cell arrays with intersect. Sort when values are None or empty strings python. So if we could take the initial matrices one and two and replicate their rows to form the matrices below, we could get all the distances we need by using the revised formula. Matlab function that computes the pseudoinverse of a matrix A is pinv(A). Matlab® Computing for Engineers and Scientists CITS1005 Point-wise Multiplication • Associated with matrices and vectors are a number of special operators, many of which are unique to Matlab. Two columns within the same table cannot share the same name. There will always be one unique such pair of points. Regarding your follow up request, I am having some difficulty understanding what you are looking for, but I think you want to find the row that has the least occurences of the column maximum. Internally, the matrix data memory must be reallocated with larger size. For example, the third element in is 3. Then rinse repeat for the other directory, copy the results into two columns in excel, and find the unique rows in excel. MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python. The unique function performs exact comparisons and determines that some values in x are not exactly equal to values in y. How to filter using OR logic between columns [Formula] Excel defined table. If Matlab can't find a solution it will return an empty symbol. Digital image processing using matlab (gonzalez) Trung Luong. I have a large matrix with with multiple rows and a limited (but larger than 1) number of columns containing values between 0 and 9 and would like to find an efficient way to identify unique row-wise combinations and their indices to then build sums (somehwat like a pivot logic). 1 (3) The sum of the multiplicities, Q, of all eigenvalues (Q must to be equal to n) with the. The actual matrix is in the order of 70000 X 2. Discover what MATLAB. MATLAB® @ Work [email protected] However, the ratio of v 1,1 to v 1,2 and the ratio of v 2,1 to v 2,2 are the same as our solution; the chosen eigenvectors of a system are not unique, but the ratio of their elements is. We will use the third output parameter of unique so that we can assign each unique number within each column into a unique ID. Merging the content of two tables. Learn more about table, column name, extract. Scroll bar. , two more columns) than does x, hence y(:,1) and y(:,end) are used as endslopes. A naive but simple approach would be in case of two matrices A and B: [code] for i=1:size(A,1) for j=1:size(B,1) if all(A(i,:)==B(j,:)) i,j end end end [/code] all(v) returns true if all elements of the vector v are true. (1) Creating row vectors in MATLAB. The unique name is whatever the user specifies; a common way to name is to set the data as the file number. Let me clarify my problem. plot(Y) creates a 2-D line plot of the data in Y versus the index of each value. Matlab command for the norm of vector v is norm(v). sqrt(sum((aa-bb). How to - table names. MATLAB allows you to append vectors together to create new vectors. pdf), Text File (. How to transpose / convert a single column to multiple columns in Excel? Supposing you have a table as showing below, and you need to change one column to a range. However, you can have columns that contain similar information. Matlab provides the unique` to solve these problems. Finding Indices of Duplicate Values. txt) or read online for free. Joining two files matching two columns with mismatches and in each matching line, substitute second column from file 1 into 6th column in file 2 3 How to merge two files based on the matching of two columns?. ARCHIVE! Please read /mac/00introduction if you haven't already done so. MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and programming language that is frequently used by engineering and science students. A can be a cell array of strings. In a next step I want to plot the data with a bar for each group. I have a data frame with two columns with each column has a list of SNPs in more than 1000 rows but not the same number of row. How do I print (output) in Matlab? There are three common ways: Type the name of a variable without a trailing semi-colon. The first column contains one of three values ranging from 1-3. Unique column pairs in 2 row matrix or 2 1 row Learn more about matlab, matrix array, matrix manipulation, matrix. MATLAB Materials - Free download as PDF File (. Filtering for unique values and removing duplicate values are two similar tasks, since the objective is to present a list of unique values. How can class data be summarized? One very simple class summary is a list of distinct values, which MATLAB provides via the unique function. What I need to do is picking certain number from X column having approximate corresponding number in Y column. Although the first and second dimensions, respectively, of MATLAB array are treated as rows (Y)and columns (X) in MATLAB, the first and second dimensions of an array are treated as X and Y, respectively, in ImageJ. The behavior of dataset. It is not a homework assignment. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. Reading all the files in sequence in MATLAB. unique of two columns and average of the third column. Toggle Main Navigation. Monday, December 24, 2007. tbl = countEachLabel(ADS,'TableVariable',VariableName) counts the number of times each unique label occurs in the datastore. Learn more about unique, matlab, column MATLAB. \classes\com\example\graphics\Rectangle. For horizontal concatenation,two variables should have the same number of. This is often acceptable, but sometimes a user prefers the results in the order originally found in the data. I've been faced with a problem that is giving me lots of trouble. How can class data be summarized? One very simple class summary is a list of distinct values, which MATLAB provides via the unique function. in MATLAB as a calculator MATLAB can be used as a ‘clever’ calculator This has very limited value in engineering Real value of MATLAB is in programming Want to store a set of instructions Want to run these instructions sequentially Want the ability to input data and output results Want to be able to plot results Want to. Returns the sorted unique elements of an array. The determinant of a matrix is a special number that can be calculated from a square matrix. For example, the name table in the telephone directory example contains columns for children's names. Note: Structure field names must begin with a letter, and are case-sensitive. As standard unique does not operate on columns I didn't even realise that the example had two identical columns. ) associated to columns (2 to 6 in T1, as column 1 is Time), which could help to sort in the loop the search for specific Variable 1, and then run the mean, save it in a matrix/table, and then repeat the search for the following columns with Variable 2, and so on. Finding minimum of sum of columns. The input vector p has two columns corresponding to the x and y coordinates of each point. Like all cardinal rules, this one is broken at times. How to find unique. jiabinhuang. Since many of the the same questions appeared again and again, I decided to start collecting what I thought were the most. The first column specifies the red intensities. The first two columns are characters (ID and name), the last two are integers (min and max). Working with MATLAB 4. This causes many problems with new students, so make a note, and commit it to memory!. I have two tables Ta and Tb that have different number of rows and different number of columns. Reading all the files in sequence in MATLAB. unique¶ numpy. It's then transposed so that unique can work on the rows (formerly columns). , the first three arguments are interpreted as the coordinates), line(X,Y,Z) MATLAB cycles through the axes ColorOrder and LineStyleOrder property values the way the plot function does. Learn more about unique, matlab, column MATLAB. Some basic tips on speeding up matlab code and on exploiting vectorisation are mentioned in the Optimisation section of our matlab page. I've uploaded a dataset with 100 data series. Given a collection of points, return the indices of the rows that contain the two points most distant from one another. Learn more about Teams. These are the same elements that have a nonzero difference in x-y. 4721 ; 0 ], which is what we want in this case. How can class data be summarized? One very simple class summary is a list of distinct values, which MATLAB provides via the unique function. plot(Y) creates a 2-D line plot of the data in Y versus the index of each value. If Matlab finds several solutions it returns a vector of solutions. For example, if the first object has a span of 2, it applies to the first two columns. I have two vectors of the same length, one is numerical and the other is a cell array. How do I print (output) in Matlab? applying "\n" to each element had the net effect of printing a row vector as if it were a column vector. In this course, you will be introduced to MATLAB at a beginner level, and will gradually move into more advanced topics. Then create a plot that spans one row and two columns. Slightly more complex is the frequency table (distinct values and their counts), which can be generated using the tabulate function from the Statistics Toolbox, or one's own code in base MATLAB, using unique:. (each of the 454 columns correspond to a unique timestamp, so these are my variables, and the 64800 rows correspond to values in longitude/latitude grid points). The resulting vector is sorted in ascending order. WELCOME TO MAC. \sources\com\example\graphics\Rectangle. Vectors and arrays¶. DAT) The Program is able to store data in. PL4) ASCII PlotXY (. Learn more about unique value in column of a matrix, distinct values MATLAB Answers. Tutorial on matrix indexing in MATLAB. Two values, u and v, are within tolerance if abs(u-v) <= tol*max(abs(A)). Indexing into tables with parentheses, dot notation, and curly braces accesses table data in different ways. In this section, we will study, compare and contrast these two situations. Specify the key, or shared column, between the tables using the 'Keys' name-value pair argument. Setup a private space for you and your coworkers to ask questions and share information. If Y is a vector, then the x -axis scale ranges from 1 to length(Y). If Y is an m-by-p matrix, hist treats the columns of Y as vectors and returns a 10-by-p matrix n. My objective is to select a number of columns based on a cell value, starting with the current column. The colon is one of the most useful operators in MATLAB. To generate logarithmic axes use semilogx for a logarithmic axis in x and a linear axis in y , semilogy for a linear axis in x and a logarithmic axis in y , and loglog for logarithmic axes in both x and y. MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python. [m,n] = size(X) returns the size of matrix X in separate variables m and n. For some words, they might have more than one number to match so I want to store all the numbers that corresponds to 'CT'='CT'. Structures are created and accessed in a manner familiar for those accustomed to programming in C. The accumarray call accumulates the values in the second column that are identified with each 'idx' value, and then calculates the minimum of them and outputs it in 'MinVals'. MATLAB functions have two parameter lists, one for input and one for output. To sort in a unique direction for each row in row, specify direction as an array whose elements are 'ascend' or 'descend'. Special thanks to Bob Haffner for pointing out a better way of doing it. Filtering for unique values and removing duplicate values are two similar tasks, since the objective is to present a list of unique values. How can I count the occurrences of each element Learn more about unique, occurences, repetitions, count, histogram MATLAB. Then create a plot that spans one row and two columns. Therefore, you would have to manually sort the names. MATLAB Answers. In a next step I want to plot the data with a bar for each group. Each of these smaller regions is assigned a unique RegionID, which numbers the regions from the largest area or volume to the smallest. Plot into the first two tiles. I have a large matrix with with multiple rows and a limited (but larger than 1) number of columns containing values between 0 and 9 and would like to find an efficient way to identify unique row-wise combinations and their indices to then build sums (somehwat like a pivot logic). getDataset(), IJM. The symbolic computations in Mathematica do not standardize the eigenvectors to unit length. [Since there are 3 duplicates for the pair 4,5 and 2 duplicates for the pair 2,6. I can't seem to overcome my problem. You can name each column, child1, child2, and so on. The third column specifies the blue intensities. I am think about a method like this Step 1. Learn more about unique MATLAB Answers. So i want to create a new column with date and second combined(13 digits). MATLAB has a preference for working with the columns of a matrix, so one way to get the row sums is to transpose the matrix, compute the column sums of the transpose, and then transpose the result. Cell arrays are used when elements of differing types must be stored in a single array. I have a large matrix with with multiple rows and a limited (but larger than 1) number of columns containing values between 0 and 9 and would like to find an efficient way to identify unique row-wise combinations and their indices to then build sums (somehwat like a pivot logic). I'm only interested on those variables (columns) that contain more than 3 unique values (then I will refine my dataset by removing the unwanted columns before further analysis). This is what I tried, but not sure if I have wrote it correctly:. I then use a unique function to merge rows with the same value in second, but that function doesn't account for the date. Multicolumn unique indexes guarantee that each combination of values in the index key is unique. Learn more about Teams. Let us use the whos command to check the variable created above − whos MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −. [Since there are 3 duplicates for the pair 4,5 and 2 duplicates for the pair 2,6. Asked by it could be beneficial to save the result of unique(B) in an array and use it both in the arrayfun and in the dlmwrite. Create Plot Spanning Multiple Rows or Columns. If Matlab finds several solutions it returns a vector of solutions. However, you can have columns that contain similar information. Two values, u and v, are within tolerance if abs(u-v) <= tol*max(abs(A)). A matrix is a two-dimensional array of numbers. The model consists of 275 rows and 277 columns. Joining two files matching two columns with mismatches and in each matching line, substitute second column from file 1 into 6th column in file 2 3 How to merge two files based on the matching of two columns?. Click “Set Path” and search the pop-up file browser for the folder to set as your MATLAB path variable. Transpose a single column to multiple columns with formulas. \sources\com\example\graphics\Rectangle. This is a result of the mathematical fact that eigenvectors are not unique: any multiple of an eigenvector is also an eigenvector! Different numerical algorithms can produce different eigenvectors, and this is compounded by the fact that you can standardize and order the eigenvectors in several ways. There will always be one unique such pair of points. I have a 10x100 shaped matrix and I only would like to get these 4 columns: 231, 82, 12, 493. I have two vectors of the same length, one is numerical and the other is a cell array. Figure 1 shows what type of character is valid for each column. Here there are two solutions and Matlab returns a vector sol with two components: sol(1) is 0 and sol(2) is -1/(t^2/2 + C3) with an arbitrary constant C3. matlab Vector - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Dispersal vector , an organism that carries and disperses reproductive structures (e. MATLAB: An Introduction with Applications, 3rd Edition. The first four elements in U are unique among themselves, and among the remaining character vectors in elements 5 and 6 ('quiz' and 'exam'). sum() Sum of all elements: a. How can I apply the 'unique' function on 2 columns [column 3 and 4] such that they will return the value '3' and '2'. M = mean(A,vecdim) computes the mean based on the dimensions specified in the vector vecdim. Now I want to group the left data into 10 classes like 10,20,30,40 etc and calculate the mean values of the right data for each group. Unique Values based on 2 Variables. [Since there are 3 duplicates for the pair 4,5 and 2 duplicates for the pair 2,6. MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result − ans = 34177/1491 Creating Vectors. [email protected] To perform a descending sort using sortrows utilize the (-) sign when designating columns. It should then populate a second sheet with the quantities table. 6 Null Space, Column Space, Row Space In applications of linear algebra, subspaces of Rn typically arise in one of two situations: 1) as the set of solutions of a linear homogeneous system or 2) as the set of all linear combinations of a given set of vectors. Asked by Sahithya S Iyer. Use a colormap of blue values by setting the first two columns to zeros. Convert cell array columns into matrix columns Tag: matlab I have a cell array (16x5) and I would like to extract all the values held in each column of the cell array and place them into a column within a matrix such that the columns are preserved (i. I want to calculate mean of columns for unique value of variable in columns (in first row). How to find unique combinations between two Learn more about matlab. Note: Structure field names must begin with a letter, and are case-sensitive. I have several data columns, one with current, one with voltage, one with time. X = [1 0 4 -3 0 0 0 8 6]; indices = find(X). One of the most important problems in technical computing is the solution of systems of simultaneous linear equations. It therefore has included in it many specialized commands that general-purpose mathematical packages do not contain. com and the Mathworks site. WELCOME TO MAC. Learn more about unique value in column of a matrix, distinct values MATLAB Answers. In general, find(X) regards X as X(:), which is the long column vector formed by concatenating the columns of X. I am working with data that is in a 152867x2 matrix. I have a large matrix with with multiple rows and a limited (but larger than 1) number of columns containing values between 0 and 9 and would like to find an efficient way to identify unique row-wise combinations and their indices to then build sums (somehwat like a pivot logic). select fails. For example, create a 2-by-2 layout. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. How do i count unique elements in two table Learn more about uitable, table MATLAB. Reading text file of different columns as empty Learn more about text file, textscan, load, data import, vector, matrix array, bug MATLAB. In this course, you will be introduced to MATLAB at a beginner level, and will gradually move into more advanced topics. The only valid characters in a two-line element set are the numbers 0-9, the capital letters A-Z, the period, the space, and the plus and minus signs—no other characters are valid. How to split data into multiple worksheets based on column in Excel? Supposing you have a worksheet with huge rows of data, and now, you need to split the data into multiple worksheets based on the Name column (see following screenshot), and the names are entered randomly. There are two ways of doing this: A) Using brackets operator B) Using concatenating functions A. with most popular image file formats. The resulting vector is sorted in ascending order. We will use a naming convention that vector variable names contain only lower case letters. splitting matrix based on a value in one column. As a result, if A is a scalar, then Matlab will return a A*A matrix of ones but in Scilab you get a 1 (just because a scalar is a 1*1 matrix), so use ones(A,A) to get the same matrix B. MATLAB - Colon Notation - The colon(:) is one of the most useful operator in MATLAB. I need to sort the whole matrix based on unique values in column 1. (MatLab chooses the. The common values between the two are eliminated from PreviousTable, which is then appended to CurrentTable. a(1,2:3) = a(6,2:3). González Buitrago. sortx(h,row,direction), where direction is 'descend', sorts the values in descending order instead of ascending order (default). Matrix: Two-dimensional numeric or logical array. If Y is a vector, then the x -axis scale ranges from 1 to length(Y). If the first column that you specify has repeating values, then sorty rearranges the remaining rows according to the second column, and so on. Accelerating MATLAB Performance (CRC Press, ISBN 9781482211290, 785 pages) aims to correct this perception, by describing multiple ways to greatly improve Matlab program speed. This syntax is especially useful when working with sparse matrices. Matlab treats any non-zero value as 1 and returns the logical AND. Cell Arrays. The MATLAB operator ' when applied to a complex vector produces the complex conjugate transpose, that is it both takes the complex conjugate of each element and the transpose of the vector. I have csv files with many columns, but interested in only two of them, say columns X and Y, all numbers. Internally, the matrix data memory must be reallocated with larger size. For example, if the first object has a span of 2, it applies to the first two columns. Given a collection of points, return the indices of the rows that contain the two points most distant from one another. *B % Multiply corresponding elements in A and B. You must save it as "factorial. Cell arrays are used when elements of differing types must be stored in a single array. The user should specify which one is defined. There are three optional outputs in addition to the unique elements: the indices of the input array that give the unique values. The unique function performs exact comparisons and determines that some values in x are not exactly equal to values in y. If Y is a vector, then the x -axis scale ranges from 1 to length(Y). I can't seem to overcome my problem. How to transpose / convert a single column to multiple columns in Excel? Supposing you have a table as showing below, and you need to change one column to a range. Thus, c contains values that appear to be duplicates. For example, enter the following in MATLAB: A = [1 2 3 3 0 9 6 5 4] B = sortrows(A,2) C = sortrows(A,3) You will receive the following output:. You can specify a unique Tag value to serve as an identifier for an object. Индексирование, программирование, векторизация, графические возможности MatLab. For a demonstration of using the 'legacy' flag to preserve the behavior from R2012b and prior in your existing code, see the documentation for unique. The solution will contain a constant C3 (or C4,C5 etc. However, I'm trying to select only specific column, say column 77 to 83, and column 86. 84 64-bit double (default) »‘a’ 16-bit char o Most variables are vectors or matrices of doubles or chars o Other types are also supported: complex, symbolic, 16-bit and 8 bit integers. year=another column but this is giving me the number of rows in 2003, but instead i want the number of unique dates in 2003 EDIT:wait actually, on the left hand side in the workspace tab, a table of variables has been created called date 192x2, and when i open this they are the values i want, how do i get it so it prints the answer 192?. Start up Matlab, and for now just type in the Command Window. [Since there are 3 duplicates for the pair 4,5 and 2 duplicates for the pair 2,6. M = mean(A,dim) returns the mean values for elements along the dimension of A specified by scalar dim. I am think about a method like this Step 1. so the first, second, sixth and seventh row should only have one instance. Matlab® Computing for Engineers and Scientists CITS1005 Point-wise Multiplication • Associated with matrices and vectors are a number of special operators, many of which are unique to Matlab. Plot into the first two tiles. if you look at the matrix, the first row at column 2 and 3 has values the same as the 6th row. How to take unique rows based on two columns. MATLAB: An Introduction with Applications, 3rd Edition. In other words, when you're. The question asked for unique matches in columns 3 and 4. The colon is one of the most useful operators in MATLAB. When the datastore Labels property is specified by a table, you must specify VariableName. I have csv files with many columns, but interested in only two of them, say columns X and Y, all numbers. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email. For example, the name table in the telephone directory example contains columns for children's names. You may also wish to read /mac/00help/archivepolicy. Create a table. I have a matrix of 38767*31. How do I print (output) in Matlab? There are three common ways: Type the name of a variable without a trailing semi-colon. Use MATLAB's backslash operator to "solve" the linear system for the right-hand-side vector b with elements 4, 3, 8. How to filter using OR logic between columns [Formula] Excel defined table. If a variable contains an empty array, disp returns without displaying anything. I have set the box to be of size 8 rows and 8 columns, and the overlapping factor to be 4 rows/columns. MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and programming language that is frequently used by engineering and science students. The selection of wether the rows or columns should be used depends on the size of the vector x. Type "y_unique_name = unique_name(1:2500,2);" to set the data in the y-axis as a variable (column 2 of the unique_name data set). In the text that follows, any line that starts with two greater than signs (>>) is used to denote the matlab command line. unique(A,'rows') will not do the job. MAT) ASCII COMTRADE format (. For example, is a matrix with three rows and two columns. How to evaluate mean for column. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. How do i count unique elements in two table Learn more about uitable, table MATLAB. I have a large matrix with with multiple rows and a limited (but larger than 1) number of columns containing values between 0 and 9 and would like to find an efficient way to identify unique row-wise combinations and their indices to then build sums (somehwat like a pivot logic). It started out as a matrix programming language where linear algebra programming was simple. If Y is a square matrix, then its columns are used. Each column must have a unique name. I have the following problem:- I have a matrix with 3 columns and a lot of rows. The accumarray call accumulates the values in the second column that are identified with each 'idx' value, and then calculates the minimum of them and outputs it in 'MinVals'. I want to calculate mean of columns for unique value of variable in columns (in first row). Internally, the matrix data memory must be reallocated with larger size. When you need access to the object elsewhere in your code, you can use the findobj function to search for the object based on the Tag value. The eigenvectors are the columns of the "v" matrix. Associated with each row and column is a frequency. *B % Multiply corresponding elements in A and B. How do i count unique elements in two table Learn more about uitable, table MATLAB. I have set the box to be of size 8 rows and 8 columns, and the overlapping factor to be 4 rows/columns. find all elements in the array a that has value 1 or 2). In MATLAB, the simplest form of the function unique returns the unique values contained in a numeric vector, with the results sorted. MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and programming language that is frequently used by engineering and science students. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: