Mla In Text Citation

Using Parenthetical Documentation (In-text Citations) Practice Use parentheses to denote the citation within the text itself. Developed by Liana Silva of César E. The full citation is found on the Works Cited Page in MLA. However, what I am quoting from the book is part of a reprinted story by Carlos Bulosan. Please note that in MLA citing, page numbers (if available) usually go in parentheses. Many different referencing formats exist, including MLA, APA and Harvard, and each of these requires both a parenthetical citation and an entry in a reference list. In-text citations for a conference paper follow standard MLA rules. In-text citations are often parenthetical, meaning you add information to the end of a sentence in parentheses. In MLA format, when I'm citing multiple pages from a single source, do I list them all in the in-text citation? Toggle menu visibility. In-text citations are also sometimes known as “parenthetical citations” because they are enclosed in parentheses. It's a quick and trusted way to create your annotated bibliography in the MLA style. MLA Citation I expect formal papers in my classes to quote sources using the system of documentation called MLA style. The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below. Revision Checklist for Essays; Tone and Audience Awareness; Reference Materials. MLA (Modern Language Association) is typically used in the Humanities whereas APA (American Psychological Association) is typically used in the social sciences. MLA In-text Citations Use the following guidelines when writing in-text citations in MLA style. Many ignorant students do it incorrectly like this: Brown (2003) says: “The level of motivation to succeed depends not only on factors in the home but also the …. THE FIRST PAGE. the first few words of the citation as it will appear alphabetized in your Work Cited page at the end of your paper. University of Guelph. Utah Valley University (UVU) does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation,. When you quote or paraphrase from a source, you need to give credit to that source by inserting a citation. You can use it to save valuable time by auto-generating all of your citations in an instant. One Author. Despite their differences, the APA and MLA citation systems have the same overall function in a research paper—sources are acknowledged via in-text citations, each of which corresponds to an entry in an alphabetical list of works at the end of the paper, referred to as “Works Cited” in MLA Style and “References” in APA Style. In-text citation in APA, MLA and Chicago. Online MLA citation generator for all sources: book, newspaper, magazine, website, etc. "School Bus Safety Being Reviewed. 157), an article in a reference work (p. When you think your answer is correct, click on "Check" to. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. MLA Style requires an in-text citation to indicate the sources that were consulted and used in your work. It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited. (Ex – Roberts (year) talked about how to appropriately cite sources from the internet (page). MLA style uses in-text citations to give credit to authors when paraphrasing or quoting their ideas. when citing a collection of works, do I credit the original author or the person who gathered the works?. The line is numbered 37 (the numbers are usually stated on the right side of the page in usually intervals of 5). Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. In-text citations for a conference paper follow standard MLA rules. For citing portions within the text, you may use page numbers if the work is a PDF file with fixed pages. However, you may include other identifying markers such as paragraph or section numbers (e. Click on this page if you're looking for information on how to create an APA in-text citation. I have to support my assertion with references to plot, character, etc. MLA Format Citation Generator: How to Use Our MLA Citation Maker. IN TEXT CITATIONS (MLA Style) In text citations can be both when you mention the author or not. To get a correctly formatted paper, Go to FILE > New and search for “APA” or “MLA” depending on what style you want. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. 14-17) refers to Act 1, Scene 3, Lines 14 to 17 of. Citing Shakespeare in MLA Format In-text citations What’s included in parentheses? When citing Shakespeare plays, list the ACT, SCENE, and LINES in parenthetical citations (page numbers are NOT included), separated by periods. What is MLA style? MLA is an editorial style recommended by the Modern Language Association (MLA) for preparing scholarly manuscripts and student research papers. The in-text citation usually appears in parentheses and corresponds directly to an entry in your list of Works Cited. mla in text citations the basics purdue writing lab in mla style referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation this method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase in text citation mla citation guide 8th edition if you would like to cite more than one source within the same in text. If an author’s name is not available, the title of the work will be in the parentheses. The best embedded quotations usually contain an aspect of analysis—how or why the quoted passage has meaning. You will have 5 0 minutes to complete this quiz. In-Text Citations. In-text citations are citations within the main body of the text and refer to a direct quote or paraphrase. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed. MLA style uses parenthetical citations within the text to direct readers to entries in the Works Cited page. In this guide you'll find further information including directions for the use of quotes without an author, page numbers, and how to properly credit work from. One of the most important features of this style is the use of MLA In-Text Citation. Utah Valley University (UVU) does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, sexual orientation,. Including a poem’s quote, you would better do accompany it with the in-text citation, referring your reader to the proper entry in the source section. “It took 20 years for the law to take effect” (Kaiser “What Happened to Justice?”. In-text citations using either signal phrases or parenthetical references document material from other sources. (For materials not covered in these examples, see pages 213-32. Cite the line numbers. Print, Web, DVD) and. If the author's name is used in the sentence, do not repeat it in the citation. List artist's name, title of work (italicized), date of composition, medium and name of institution that houses the collection. Source: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition. * In-Text Citations * Continued… A parenthetical reference is a citation in parentheses at the end of the sentence or paragraph; it will include the author’s name (if it is not given in the signal phrase) and a page number (if available). A direct quotation written by Chambers found on page 11:. The in-text citation for a film should key to a works-cited-list entry. MLA Style requires an in-text citation to indicate the sources that were consulted and used in your work. In-Text Citation Example (Author's Last Name Page Number) (Schmidt A11) Note: If an article is only one page long, you do not need to provide the page number in the in-text citation. Chávez High School in Houston, Texas, these materials are openly available for classroom use. For sources without an author, the title is used instead. Footnote The Chicago Manual of Style. Brief in-text citations point the reader to more complete information in the works cited list at the end of the paper. 100-01) for the acceptable abbreviation. That way the reader can enjoy your writing without distraction. Citation FAQ. MLA 8th and MLA 7th Edition Comparison: Web Document; 10. Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free. In-text citations must appear in your paper whenever you use information or ideas belonging to other people. The use of my trans. purdue owl mla, purdue owl, purdue owl mla citation, owl purdue apa, owl purdue mla, apa purdue owl, owl at purdue mla, Purdue owl APA MLA Citation Formatting and Style Guide Home. If using the author's name in your text, do not include it in the. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation the paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, cite a complete reference should appear on your Works Within page. • Citations are numbered sequentially in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered footnote containing publication information about the source cited. University of Guelph. Because the use of in-text citations will be so integral to your writing processes, being able to instantly craft correct citations and identify incorrect citations will save you time during writing and will help you avoid having unnecessary. , and I have to "use MLA documentation style for in-text citations and citing sources". 05) To maximize the effectiveness of your writing, word your in-text citations in several ways. An MLA in-text citation does not include the date because currency of ideas in certain fields typically is not necessary in order to be valid. MLA in-text citation is a brief reference to a source of a citation consisting of the name of the author and the page on which the cited material is found, to be placed directly after the citation. Pubmed IDs are the most reliable way of getting an accurate, fully-formated citation using this tool. On your works cited page you will only include the source that you actually looked at. MLA Style Citation Worksheet Version 7. In no case do you single-space anything. Use the following template to cite a blog using the MLA citation style. After a quote, add the author's last name and a page number/reference. SYLLABUS/SUPPLIES "THE GIFT OF THE MAGI" IN-TEXT CITATIONS MLA STYLE. How Much to Cite. MLA citation format is a method for formatting your paper and documenting the sources of information you use in your paper. EXERCISE 32-1 MLA documentation: in-text citations To read about how to use and format MLA in-text citations, see 32a in A Pocket Style Manual,Fifth Edition. In Text Citations MLA 1. The author's name is also the first to appear in the "Works Cited" page at the end of the essay. In a word, your task is to provide the information that can be found on the website and nothing more. The in-text citation must correspond with the entry on the Works Cited page, MLA in-text citations follow the Author-Page style, meaning the author's last name and the page number(s) of the quotation or paraphrase must appear in the text. Citation Machine helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. If you are creating an in-text citation for a dictionary entry, you would follow APA's standard in-text citation guidelines of including the first part of the reference and the year. The Modern Language Association style, more commonly known as MLA style is often used to give credit to sources in an academic setting, particularly in the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed. The MLA format generally involves in-text references, endnotes, and footnotes. Writing Resource Center Writing Resource Center (WRC) provides support for writers across the university. MLA Referencing Basics: In-Text Citation. MLA In-text Citations. The purpose of the in-text citation is to inform your audience when you are making a reference to someone else's ideas, words, works, or other information you used to support your writing. APA “Their conversation is awkward, especially when she mentions Wickham, a subject Darcy clearly wishes to avoid” (SparkNotes Editors, 2002). In 2016, the MLA Handbook was updated in an effort to simplify much of the documentation process in MLA format. If you list a film under its title, you must refer to the title in your writing or cite it parenthetically: Point of No Return, a remake of Nikita, deviates from the original French movie in several ways. The way you cite song lyrics will vary depending on how you access them and how much information you include in the body of your essay. In-text Citation vs. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends. How-To Guide: Image Citation Students at the Academy of Art University (AAU) follow the Modern Language Association (MLA) format for research papers. In MLA style, an in-text should point the reader to the correct source in the "Works Cited. For citing portions within the text, you may use page numbers if the work is a PDF file with fixed pages. MLA Style Citation Examples: Media. A narrative MLA in-text citation is when the author’s name is used in the text of the sentence. In-text citations are brief and will appear among the sentences you write in your paper. This is known as an in-text citation. Example paragraph with in-text citation. If you have already cited a movie in one place, you should avoid repetition. MLA 8 Citation Guide In-Text Citation: (Author Last Name and Author Last Name page number). MLA (Modern Language Association) format is used to write academic papers in linguistic and literature disciplines. If referencing only one play throughout the paper, then the act, scene and line numbers are all that is required. MLA: Format and In-text Citations. MLA In-Text Citation MLA In-Text Citation Handout (MS Word) Examples are based on the MLA Handbook, 8th edition. MLA Citation Basics. Refund Policy. More on using Ibid. Moreover, when writing an MLA style essay, you also need to add a title page and a bibliography section. How much do you know about MLA citations? Take it up and get to find out right now. “In-text” means that citation information is incorporated in the text, using signal phrases and parentheses, rather than provided in a footnote or endnote. Print, Web, DVD) and. Examples: Andersen argued this point (27-32). On your works cited page you will only include the source that you actually looked at. For now the main thing to realize is that the MLA guidelines promote an unobtrusive citation style. According to the MLA, the citation is created as follows: Begin the citation with the author's real name, followed by the author's Twitter username in parentheses. It is therefore important that you take the time to memorize the MLA guidelines for in-text citations. MLA -- Works. Also, when learning on how to cite an interview MLA in text the process is the same. 8) or time-based markers (e. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of citations for many different types of sources. MLA style uses parenthetical citations within the text to direct readers to entries in the Works Cited page. In-text Citation vs. You include them when quoting, block quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing the contents of a source. There are several elements to the citation which may be necessary to properly cite a document such as the Booth Tarkington letter to the left. That exact data format about your current citation deviates dependant in whether or not you have been choosing the actual Contemporary Dialect Refer to posting (MLA), U. An MLA paper is by far not the worst thing that could have happened to you. In-Text Citations in MLA Style. How to cite an interview in MLA. MLA List of Works Cited: Other Sources - Published Letter Cite a published letter the same way as a work in an anthology. Works Cited Page. Ask the MLA in-text citations quotations titles of works using sources works-cited list How do I cite in my prose an untitled poem known by its number in a collection? If you are citing an untitled poem known only by its number, a generic description of the poem can be substituted for the title in the works-. In-text citation: Maya Angelou said that "text of quotation. in-text citations mla style. Research Challenge. You should use in-text citations whenever you quote an author directly, as well as whenever you refer to an original idea which you got from a specific author or book. If you have already cited a movie in one place, you should avoid repetition. The first word found in the full citation on the Works Cited page (usually the last name of the author). If an author’s name is not available, the title of the work will be in the parentheses. In-text Citation vs. While this approach is more. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. Include author's last name and the page number (no comma before the page number) in parentheses:. ) Pick a citation style (i. Footnote The Chicago Manual of Style. The role of in-text citations is to give just enough details to point your reader to the complete citation found in your Works Cited list. This guide indicates the appropriate form for layout, in-text citations, and bibliography for MLA, APA, and Chicago formatted. These are the quick, parenthetical citations embedded in the body of the work, such as: (Anderson, 65). On your works cited page you will only include the source that you actually looked at. In-text citations include two parts, the lead-in (or signal) phrase and the parenthetical citation. Search this site. Guideline 1: Basic Citation. For more information, you can visit the MLA's website or the excellent Purdue OWL. The education and research community follows a set of guidelines and formatting rules – like the MLA Style and the APA Style – to properly cite original sources in their writing and these style guides do offer guidance on citing tweets as well. If you are using a direct quote, put the citation on the outside of the closing quotation mark. Print, Web, DVD) and. How do I cite an e-book in MLA style? An e-book—that is, a book that lacks a URL and that you use software to read on a personal device or computer—is considered a version according to the MLA Handbook's template of core elements: MLA Handbook. Mla in text citations research paper Vending machine business plan example Sample research proposal for phd in chemistry, the explainer how to write a great business plan. and the year. Make your citation process easier!. print, web, interview, etc. Traditionally, in-text citations included the author's last name and the page number. MLA-style documents include brief in-text citations in combination with a detailed listing of sources in a separate Works Cited page at the end of a document. In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. (Be sure to see the quicktip about the MLA. Note: If there is no author listed, the in-text citation would include the first word or words of the title of the article in quotation marks, e. Citing Other Online Sources. If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith). Many different referencing formats exist, including MLA, APA and Harvard, and each of these requires both a parenthetical citation and an entry in a reference list. MLA style uses in-text citations to give credit to authors when paraphrasing or quoting their ideas. You will probably find yourself using MLA in-text citations most often. However, there are some special circumstances where you may have to deviate from this format. James Smith, The first and last war, (New York, Hamilton. When you quote or paraphrase from a source, you need to give credit to that source by inserting a citation. Works cited examples. Basic format (Author-Page Style) Author's name in. "School Bus Safety Being Reviewed. How Much to Cite. In-text citations provide the reader with source information to give the original author credit and identify where the information came from. If the introduction or preface is written by another contributor, fill in the section of the form called Chapter or Section to cite the author, section title and page numbers. If you are taking a literature or humanities class, you need to know MLA. When an entry starts with a government agency as the author, begin the entry with the name of the government (e. Our professor wants us to use the MLA format in this book review. It is therefore important that you take the time to memorize the MLA guidelines for in-text citations. (Ex – Roberts (year) talked about how to appropriately cite sources from the internet (page). Help Manual. These in-text citations—used when source material is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized—point to full bibliographic citations located in the reference page at the end of. You don’t want to plagiarize your paper and fall victim of the consequences; just learn how to make proper in-text citations using the MLA format to avoid unnecessary repercussions. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. SYLLABUS/SUPPLIES "THE GIFT OF THE MAGI" IN-TEXT CITATIONS MLA STYLE. If the author's name is mentioned in the sentence, only cite the page number. Source: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition. In-Text Citations Citing sources no longer means endnotes or footnotes. It is also to be done precisely with great care which is possible if one hires an expert. Typically, when you cite scripture within the context of a paper, if you are using the King James translation or the RSV (Revised Standard Version), you do not need to include the Bible in your Works Cited list. ) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd ed. Poetry In-Text citation, second essay assignment. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. MLA in-text citations are the brief references in the body of your document, which help your reader to find the full reference in the list of Works Cited. Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, and Harvard for free. Practicing In-Text Citations. MLA style uses in-text citations to give credit to authors when paraphrasing or quoting their ideas. ²² See page 43 of the MLA Handbook 8th edition for moe information about how to cite an episode of a t. The basic in-text citation normally includes the author(s) and page(s). The in-text citation must correspond with the entry on the Works Cited page, MLA in-text citations follow the Author-Page style, meaning the author's last name and the page number(s) of the quotation or paraphrase must appear in the text. Addresses each in the owl: Best price for thesis statement best cover of apa exampletitle page, and provides a strong impression as a mla brought to letter a series of apa cover essay writing. " (Publication Manual of the APA, 2010, p. This video will show how to do in text citations in MLA format for beginners. Include author's last name and the page number (no comma before the page number) in parentheses:. * In-Text Citations * Continued… A parenthetical reference is a citation in parentheses at the end of the sentence or paragraph; it will include the author’s name (if it is not given in the signal phrase) and a page number (if available). What if I'm citing the same source over and over? After giving the full citation the first time you use a source, you can use "Ibid. MLA presupposes that a paper can have in-text citations. The act of citing sources is also a defense against allegations of plagiarism. Sentence Variety (6. In-Text citations are brief citations found after a direct quote or a paraphrase. 2) A parenthetical (or in text) citation merely refers your reader to your works cited page. and the year. In-text citations include the last name of the author followed by a page number enclosed in parentheses. In a word, your task is to provide the information that can be found on the website and nothing more. This is usually enough to identify the source and the specific location from which you borrowed the material. The in-text citation should occur within the sentence where the cited material has been used. List artist's name, title of work (italicized), date of composition, medium and name of institution that houses the collection. 01:28:3-7) for audio or video recordings. The purpose of the in-text citation is to inform your audience when you are making a reference to someone else's ideas, words, works, or other information you used to support your writing. In Text Citations MLA 1. " to indicate the same source. • Citations in the text can either be either placed at the end of a sentence in parentheses (brackets) or alternatively, the author's name may be included in the text, and just the date and additional information placed within the brackets. The standard MLA in-text citation includes the author's last name. Refer to the examples below to review ways of creating an in-text citation. 121) Abbreviate the title of a work if you cite it frequently in your paper. This How-To guide provides explanations and examples based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th ed. Style and Formatting Guide for Citing a Work of Drama The following information is an adapted version of the style and formatting guidelines found in the MLA Handbook, 8th ed. MLA In-Text Citations MLA Citations in the Body of Your Paper. MLA in-text citations Search this Guide Search. To cite an image you found online, use the italicized image title or general description in your text, and then cite it using the first element in the works cited entry. This is the main difference between APA and MLA style. So, what is an in-text citation? An in-text citation allows you to refer to the work of others in your paper and includes a combination of a signal phrase and parenthetical reference. It is the first citation style students meet on their life way. MLA 8 Citation for Websites with No Author. Succeeding Academic mla format cite in text Goals Our result oriented services provide you with the best outcomes for achieving academic success and goals in your student life. In-text citations are also sometimes known as "parenthetical citations" because they are enclosed in parentheses. The MLA (Modern Language Association) style is usually used to cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. ), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Multiple MLA inline citation question. In-Text Citation: MLA Guidelines. Bluebook Citation Generator for Anyone. Use the following template to cite a blog using the MLA citation style. Cite Right: MLA In-Text Citations Search form. The Complete Guide to MLA & Citations helps you with your MLA citing. This citation is always located just after the quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material. "Kate Chopin. Active 11 months ago. Students and writers of research papers are generally required to use the MLA citation style if they are writing a topic that falls under the category of literature, literary criticism, philosophy, languages, or any of the major subjects in liberal arts and studies. Find how to format in-text/parenthetical citations, papers, and cite when no author or date is listed. Their purpose is to unobtrusively guide readers to the corresponding entry in your list of works cited. MLA In-Text (aka Parenthetical) Citation Practice. If you have any questions, please drop by the Circulation Desk on the 1st floor of Pius Library to consult the MLA Handbook. For in-text citation by a known author the style is as follows: The purpose of this document as described by Khalid was to help students. For sources without an author, the title is used instead. There is no universally accepted standard for citing online sources, but it is generally adequate to indicate the document's Web address, or URL (uniform resource locator), somewhere in the citation, usually following the date on which the electronic document was published, posted, or last revised (if known). One Author. Developed by Liana Silva of César E. " Post-Gazette, 26 May 1983, pp. You should use in-text citations whenever you quote an author directly, as well as whenever you refer to an original idea which you got from a specific author or book. Here are two examples. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed. At the end of the sentence, in parentheses, is the page number where the information was found. This is the total package when it comes to MLA format. MLA in-text citations are the brief references in the body of your document, which help your reader to find the full reference in the list of Works Cited. Cite the source right in the text of your paper. MLA stands for the Modern Language Association. Students and writers of research papers are generally required to use the MLA citation style if they are writing a topic that falls under the category of literature, literary criticism, philosophy, languages, or any of the major subjects in liberal arts and studies. To save a PDF copy of the report, click below and follow instructions for your browser. This How-To guide provides explanations and examples based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th ed. Traditionally, in-text citations included the author's last name and the page number. mla format cite in text They really are a one stop shop for all of your mla format cite in text essay requirements. Movie Romeo and Juliet was first originally created by William Shakespeare it is traditionally shown in theatres, In this essay I shall compare and contrast the traditional script and the modern movie. For more information, you can visit the MLA's website or the excellent Purdue OWL. The most telling characteristic is, at the end of a sentence, paragraph, or other segment of information, the surname of an author, followed by a year and perhaps a page number, located in parentheses. The lead-in phrase is an important element of the in-text citation to include when integrating. As more information is introduced via the Web, students and instructors must come to expect an increase in the number of online citations included in research papers. In-Text Citations. This tool is a free citation generator online available for everyone. All sources of information, such as quotes or borrowed ideas, must be acknowledged in your writing. Basic Format: Author Last Name, First Name Middle Name or Initial. punctuation. When you cite a magazine, journal, or newspaper article found through a library subscription database, you must include some key components. Poetry In-Text citation, second essay assignment. This specific type of documentation method is most commonly used in the English (or other language) literature, cultural studies, and gender studies and humanities fields. Begin with the episode name in quotation marks. Shakespearean Play In-Text Citations (p. They are used to document sources of information in academic and scholarly writing. The correct formatting for an in-text citation varies depending on how many authors created the work being cited. Instantly create citations for website. Click on this page if you’re looking for information on how to create an APA in-text citation. MLA style calls referring to the works of others in one's own paper parenthetical citations (This is generally the same idea as an in-text citation in APA style) The information required in a parenthetical citation depends on the following: The type of source being used (e. Citing Sources: Shakespeare and MLA. In-text references must be included following the use of a quote or paraphrase taken from another piece of work. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation the paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, cite a complete reference should appear on your Works Within page. For instance, MLA and APA require pages numbers which are never found in songs. For more information, please visit the EBSCO Web site. Basic Format: Author Last Name, First Name Middle Name or Initial. An in-text citation is when the writer references the originating author in the actual body of the essay. In other words, it is a system or machine, which automatically turns all your content into chosen citations immediately. In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: